Carroll-Loye Research

Since 1989


Dr. Scott Carroll and Dr. Jenella Loye have pioneered scientific testing, product development and registration services for insect repellents, organic, natural and low toxicity pesticides, fertilizers and soil amendments.

Carroll-Loye Biological Research provides customized service, superior scientific practice in applied public health and agricultural entomology, and Good Laboratory Practice scientific services. We furnish regulatory and product development advice to facilitate registration under US EPA, PMRA, EU and other regulatory authorities.  

We have the academic acumen and industrial experience to maximize your project's:

  • Relevance

  • Reliability

  • Information content

  • Cost effectiveness

We understand that the needs of our sponsors, whether large or small, are ill-served by a boilerplate approach. Everyone on our team of science and regulatory professionals welcomes discussion to best meet your objectives.

Global in scope, local everywhere


Carroll-Loye has broad expertise in public health, environmental entomology, product development and registration and academic biology. Carroll-Loye utilizes research sites and facilities nationally and throughout the world.

Working with the regulatory community


We work closely with regulatory bodies (EPA, PMRA, EU, FDA, DoD) to define best practices for meeting our sponsor’s needs and for sound science in general. Our in-house practices are integral to the recommendations of US EPA regulatory guidelines for insect repellent efficacy tests.

The benefits of working with Carroll-Loye


  • Recognized leader in insect repellent development and testing

  • Planned approach to safety, performance and registration

  • Clear understanding and practical application of EPA Practices

  • Cost-effective development

  • US/EPA GLP Inspected

  • IRB approved Human Research Subject Protocols

  • Complete Quality Assurance Monitoring Team

  • Protocols approved by California EPA

  • Pioneer in the registration of botanical insect repellents

  • Global clientele

  • Services are confidential

Is registration my responsibility?

Ensuring product effectiveness and safety, is the responsibility of everyone engaged in the development process.

As a case in point, the rapid spread of West Nile Virus, the unchecked epidemic of Lyme Disease and risks associated with global climate change have raised public awareness of insect repellents as well as expectations for performance and government oversight.

With this increased attention to insect repellents, and the growing concern about liability, businesses are searching for ways to:


  • reduce risk of poor performance

  • improve confidence in repellent safety and efficacy determination

  • fathom and comply with the EPA guidelines

  • differentiate themselves from the competition


Assuring reliable, effective and safe insect repellents depends on thorough and professional testing. Even if you use deregulated (‘25B’) active ingredients, efficacy should still be properly demonstrated. Carroll-Loye Biological Research can help you to meet your performance and safety goals.

Our Team
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Dr. Scott Carroll, Ph.D.


Scott is an evolutionary biologist who develops public health and biodiversity solutions at the human-environment interface. His academic background permits him to bring new perspectives to long-standing issues in applied biology.


Google Scholar

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Ralph Washington jr., M.S.

Vice President

Ralph is a professional entomologist with a focus on organizational leadership.  He received a Master's degree in Entomology from UC Davis in 2017, and studied graduate level Public Policy and Statistics at UC Berkeley. He works to insure excellence in our client services and build our service portfolio.  As an academic, Ralph was President and CEO of the 250,000 strong University of California Student Association. He also  captained the World Champion UC Davis Linnean Games Team, which under his leadership achieved historic dominance in that premier academic insect trivia competition. Ralph is also an in-demand public speaker and science educator.


Cassandre Kaplinsky, M.S.

Director of Research

Cass uses her international background in field biology, ecology, animal behavior, and entomology to help design and conduct studies at CLBR. She received her Master's degree in 2018 from Roehampton University in London on the influence of climate disasters on tropical primate social systems. Her experience working with animals ranging from wasps to monkeys in a wide diversity of environments helps us to perform accurate and effective studies throughout the world. 


Dr. Jenella Loye, Ph.D.

Medical Entomology

Jenella is a medical entomologist and microbiologist who works with diseases and parasites including  mosquitoes, black flies, bed bugs, fleas, ticks and lice, as well as bird parasites. She has numerous publications in the field, including a book for Oxford University Press.  (Photo taken here)

Google Scholar


Shawn King, M.S.

Scientific & Regulatory Affairs

Shawn B. King has worked with Carroll-Loye for two decades. He holds a Master's degree from UC Davis, with expertise in agricultural systems, restoration and pest management. Shawn provides scientific and regulatory oversight for our insect repellent studies, with unparalleled experience with the US/EPA Human Studies Review Board. He also manages US/EPA Good Laboratory Practice compliance for our EPA GLP efficacy studies of skin-applied  and spatial repellents. Shawn is also an accomplished multi-instrumentalist and an earth-building expert.


Dr. David Nielsen, Ph.D.

Product Development

Dave has 20 years of industry success in developing, registering, and commercializing green products for agriculture, public health and personal use in California, the US, and world markets. He liaises frequently with industry leaders and is in regular contact with state and federal regulatory managers. Dave is skilled in NOP product compliance and organic input material development and registration. In addition to his development and regulatory background and his advanced degrees in entomology and genetics, David has a decade of scientific team leadership experience.  


Dr. G.K. (Ghona) Sangha

Toxicology; Antimicrobial and Repellent Registration

Dr. Sangha supports our clients in product development and registration with decades of industry experience in regulatory affairs, analytical chemistry, and study development for EPA, PMRA and EU. As a leader in applied ecotoxicology and regulatory toxicology, she has published extensively in the Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, and has recently been involved in the Global Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health.

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Dr. Corwin Parker, Ph.D.

Senior Entomologist

Corwin is a broadly trained entomologist with expertise in ecology and taxonomy. He's high energy and always ready for sharp and muddy sides of field work (unless there's poison ivy/oak). At the same time Corwin is incredibly precise and efficient. He completed his PhD at the University of California Davis studying bark beetle ecology and insect-nematode interactions. Corwin is also a fine artist. 


Dr. Trevor Fowles, Ph.D.

Director of Field Research

Trevor Fowles designs and facilitates both lab and field studies. He's a keen observer of insect behavior, adding his entomological insights to develop biologically meaningful assays in our wind tunnel trials, host choice experiments, and field efficacy studies. Trevor has worked at Carroll-Loye since 2005, and is now also in the third year of a Ph.D. program in Entomology at University of California, Davis (across the street).

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True Randall, B.A.

Laboratory Manager

True graduated from UC Davis having studied Music Composition and Evolution, Ecology, and Biodiversity. As Laboratory Manager for Carroll-Loye, he has designed, executed, and reported on the majority of the laboratory work conducted by CLBR since 2017. He also participates in much of CLBR’s fieldwork when time allows. When he’s not working, True can usually be found running long distances or composing and playing music.


Moriah Garrison, B.S.

Senior Entomologist

Moriah is a graduate of UC Davis in Entomology, with a wide variety of both lab and field experience. She assists with an assortment of studies at CLBR, from designing equipment to performing hands-on research with insects. Her diverse experience and organizational skills help us conduct research as efficiently and accurately as possible. Moriah also keeps a wide variety of reptiles, giving her a unique perspective on both flora and fauna.


Alison Nicole Stewart, B.S.

Laboratory Manager

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