Carroll-Loye Research

Since 1989


Dr. Scott Carroll and Dr. Jenella Loye have pioneered scientific testing, product development and registration services for insect repellents, organic, natural and low toxicity pesticides, fertilizers and soil amendments.

Carroll-Loye Biological Research provides customized service, superior scientific practice in applied public health and agricultural entomology, and Good Laboratory Practice scientific services. We furnish regulatory and product development advice to facilitate registration under US EPA, PMRA, EU and other regulatory authorities.  

We have the academic acumen and industrial experience to maximize your project's:

  • Relevance

  • Reliability

  • Information content

  • Cost effectiveness

We understand that the needs of our sponsors, whether large or small, are ill-served by a boilerplate approach. Everyone on our team of science and regulatory professionals welcomes discussion to best meet your objectives.

Global in scope, local everywhere


Carroll-Loye has broad expertise in public health, environmental entomology, product development and registration and academic biology. Carroll-Loye utilizes research sites and facilities nationally and throughout the world.

Working with the regulatory community


We work closely with regulatory bodies (EPA, PMRA, EU, FDA, DoD) to define best practices for meeting our sponsor’s needs and for sound science in general. Our in-house practices are integral to the recommendations of US EPA regulatory guidelines for insect repellent efficacy tests.

The benefits of working with Carroll-Loye


  • Recognized leader in insect repellent development and testing

  • Planned approach to safety, performance and registration

  • Clear understanding and practical application of EPA Practices

  • Cost-effective development

  • US/EPA GLP Inspected

  • IRB approved Human Research Subject Protocols

  • Complete Quality Assurance Monitoring Team

  • Protocols approved by California EPA

  • Pioneer in the registration of botanical insect repellents

  • Global clientele

  • Services are confidential

Is registration my responsibility?

Ensuring product effectiveness and safety, is the responsibility of everyone engaged in the development process.

As a case in point, the rapid spread of West Nile Virus, the unchecked epidemic of Lyme Disease and risks associated with global climate change have raised public awareness of insect repellents as well as expectations for performance and government oversight.

With this increased attention to insect repellents, and the growing concern about liability, businesses are searching for ways to:


  • reduce risk of poor performance

  • improve confidence in repellent safety and efficacy determination

  • fathom and comply with the EPA guidelines

  • differentiate themselves from the competition


Assuring reliable, effective and safe insect repellents depends on thorough and professional testing. Even if you use deregulated (‘25B’) active ingredients, efficacy should still be properly demonstrated. Carroll-Loye Biological Research can help you to meet your performance and safety goals.

Our Team
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Dr. Scott Carroll, Ph.D.


Scott is an evolutionary biologist who develops public health and biodiversity solutions at the human-environment interface. His academic background permits him to bring new perspectives to long-standing issues in applied biology.


Google Scholar


Dr. Jenella Loye, Ph.D.

Medical Entomology

Jenella is a medical entomologist and microbiologist who works with diseases and parasites including  mosquitoes, black flies, bed bugs, fleas, ticks and lice, as well as bird parasites. She has numerous publications in the field, including a book for Oxford University Press.  (Photo taken here)

Google Scholar


Shawn King, M.S.

Scientific & Regulatory Affairs

Shawn B. King has worked with Carroll-Loye for two decades. He holds a Master's degree from UC Davis, with expertise in agricultural systems, restoration and pest management. Shawn provides scientific and regulatory oversight for our insect repellent studies, with unparalleled experience with the US/EPA Human Studies Review Board. He also manages US/EPA Good Laboratory Practice compliance for our EPA GLP efficacy studies of skin-applied  and spatial repellents. Shawn is also an accomplished multi-instrumentalist and an earth-building expert.


Dr. David Nielsen, Ph.D.

Product Development

Dave has 20 years of industry success in developing, registering, and commercializing green products for agriculture, public health and personal use in California, the US, and world markets. He liaises frequently with industry leaders and is in regular contact with state and federal regulatory managers. Dave is skilled in NOP product compliance and organic input material development and registration. In addition to his development and regulatory background and his advanced degrees in entomology and genetics, David has a decade of scientific team leadership experience.  


Cassandre Kaplinsky, M.S.

Director of Research

Cass uses her international background in field biology, ecology, animal behavior, and entomology to help design and conduct studies at CLBR. She received her Master's degree in 2018 from Roehampton University in London on the influence of climate disasters on tropical primate social systems. Her experience working with animals ranging from wasps to monkeys in a wide diversity of environments helps us to perform accurate and effective studies throughout the world. 

Google Scholar


Dr. G.K. (Ghona) Sangha

Toxicology; Antimicrobial and Repellent Registration

Dr. Sangha supports our clients in product development and registration with decades of industry experience in regulatory affairs, analytical chemistry, and study development for EPA, PMRA and EU. As a leader in applied ecotoxicology and regulatory toxicology, she has published extensively in the Handbook of Pesticide Toxicology, and has recently been involved in the Global Collaboration for Development of Pesticides for Public Health.


Dr. Trevor Fowles, Ph.D.

Director of Field Research

Trevor Fowles designs and facilitates both lab and field studies. He's a keen observer of insect behavior, adding his entomological insights to develop biologically meaningful assays in our wind tunnel trials, host choice experiments, and field efficacy studies. Trevor has worked at Carroll-Loye since 2005, and is now also in the third year of a Ph.D. program in Entomology at University of California, Davis (across the street).

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Moriah Garrison, B.S.

Senior Entomologist

Moriah received her Bachelor's degree in Entomology from University of Califonia, Davis and is currently pursuing a Master's degree in Entomology with a specialization in Medical Entomology from the University of Florida. She conducts a wide variety of duties at CLBR, from experimental design to performing hands-on entomological research. Her lab and field research experience allows her to devise creative solutions to serve our clients' needs as efficiently as possible.


Alison Nicole Stewart, B.S.

Laboratory Manager

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Dustin J. Hadley, Ph.D.

Technology and Research

Dustin holds a Ph.D. in biomedical engineering where his previous work was a synthesis of material science, cryobiology, and cardiovascular tissue engineering. His skills with CAD have aided CLBR in improving day-to-day operations and facilities. In addition to this, he helps with performing research, utilizing his experience with material science, material testing, engineering design, mentorship, and project management.


Collin Pihl, B.S.

Laboratory and field research Technician

Collin received a B.S. in Global Disease Biology in 2021 from the University of California, Davis. He has previously worked in the medical field as an Emergency Medical Technician, and has aspirations of attaining a Master’s in Public Health and Master’s in Health Services. His duties at CLBR include technical and research support, insectary management, mosquito rearing, and assisting with laboratory and field efficacy studies. 

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